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Short Introduction to Naturalist Charles Darwin

Short Introduction to Naturalist Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who devoted his life to the study of nature and geology. He is best known for his extensive contributions to the study of evolution.

Darwin was born in 1809 to a wealthy family. His father was a prominent doctor who influenced Darwin to study medicine in his youth. He was sent to continue in his footsteps at the University of Edinburgh Medical School. To his father’s dismay Darwin was squeamish during surgeries and uninterested in lectures.

Despite being enrolled at the best medical school in the UK Darwin focused his attention on theories that challenged religious entanglements with science. He became immersed in the study of marine invertebrates, and spent a great deal of time learning to classify plants and assemble the botany collection of the University Museum.

Darwin’s father attempted to reshape his interests again by transferring him to Cambridge’s Christ College. This course of education would have led Darwin to become an Anglican parson, but Darwin had other ideas. He spent a great deal of time on recreation, and on assembling a large beetle collection. He graduated in 1831 with an ordinary degree and a great deal of interest in natural theology. He had become a close friend of botanist and professor John Stevens Henslow who would subsequently recommend Darwin embark on an expedition on the HMS Beagle.

Darwin boarded the HMS Beagle in 1831 in the role of the gentleman naturalist. The five year voyage was intended to survey the South American coastline. Darwin assisted with geological surveys and kept a journal of his findings while also collecting fossils. At the end of the journey Darwin wrote that his findings seemed to reveal secrets about the origin of species. He’d also completed a great deal of experiential research pertaining to anthropology,geology, and zoology. Excerpts from his journals and letters had been distributed amongst scientific circles in England.

By March of 1837 as he organized his findings in writing Darwin mapped out his perception of an evolutionary tree. By June he was including his thoughts about sexual reproduction and lifespan as they applied to the adaptations of species. He used this research as a basis for his most famous theory of natural selection which was finally published in 1856.

Darwin died in 1882 at the age of 73 after a long life of scientific study. His published works provide immense value globally, and he has been described as among the most truly influential people in the world’s history.…

13 Different Types of Engineering Explained

13 Different Types of Engineering Explained

As a student considering your options for college or university, the choices can be overwhelming. This is the case even within certain disciplines where there might be a dozen different subcategories and / or specialties within the profession. Let’s explore some of the more popular Engineering disciplines, shall we?

Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that strives to apply engineering science to agricultural production and farming. In some circles it is commonly accepted that the scope of agricultural engineering is broader than all other forms of engineering, as it combines elements of mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering with animal and plant biology.

Architectural Engineering involves the application of engineering principles to building construction and design. In some parts of the world, the words architect and architectural engineer are used interchangeably.

Biomedical Engineering strives to apply engineering principles and technology to the field of medicine. Originally considered an interdisciplinary specialization, biomedical eng has grown to become a respected discipline of its own. Tissue engineering, while also considered a specialization within biotechnology, is one such example of biomedical engineering in action.

Ceramic Engineering relates to the practice of designing and creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. The process generally includes the purification of raw materials, the production of compounds, their formation into components, and the study of their composition, properties and structure.

Civil Engineering is a discipline that deals primarily with the design, construction and maintenance of bridges, roads, canals, and the like. As a point of interest, this engineering discipline was enshrined to distinguish itself from military engineering. It is considered the second-oldest discipline, after military.

Computer Engineering is a combination of computer science and electronic engineering. Computer engineers design both computer software and computer hardware, in addition to developing solutions for the integration of the two.

Electrical Engineering is the study and application of electromagnetism, electronics, and electricity. It’s a broad-based discipline that encompasses the design and implementation of various electronic / electrical systems such as circuits, generators, motors, and transformers.

Environmental Engineering refers to the application of scientific principles to environmental improvement. Generally speaking, this discipline attempts to provide healthy air, water and land for safe habitation. Additionally, this particular discipline attempts to find ways to reverse environmental damages caused by pollution.

Industrial Engineering is a discipline concerned with the development and ongoing improvement of integrated systems. In manufacturing systems, focus is placed on finding ways to eliminate waste (time, money, materials, energy, etc). Industrial engineering is not necessarily limited to manufacturing, however.

Manufacturing Engineering, on the other hand, deals almost exclusively with the design and maintenance of different manufacturing processes, tools, equipment and machines. Lean manufacturing principles are one such example of scientific manufacturing in action.

Materials Engineering is concerned with the properties of matter and it’s application to science and technology. This generally refers to the study of the structure of materials at the molecular level, and includes elements of applied physics and chemistry. Nanotechnology is one such example of materials engineering in action.

Mechanical Engineering is …

Type 2 Diabetes – Is There A Six Month Transition Time Before A Diabetes Diagnosis Is Made?

Type 2 Diabetes – Is There A Six Month Transition Time Before A Diabetes Diagnosis Is Made?

According to recent research published in July 2017 in the online journal PLOS ONE, a critical six-month transition phase occurs in people before they can be diagnosed with full-blown Type 2 diabetes. Scientists at Stanford University in Palo Alto, United States, and various other institutions in China studied 7,334 participants from the Maine (USA) State Health Information Exchange. The researchers looked at all the medical records dating back to 24 months before the Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was made. They found a critical period of six months prior to the diagnosis, a time when it might be possible to head off the disease.

In March of 2014, the journal Brief Bioinformatics reported on a similar study from the University of Shanghai in China. Their dynamic network biomarker (DNB) includes molecules that drive the body’s state from normal to diabetic. Molecules found in the liver, fat, and muscle tissue have to do with…

  • insulin resistance, the cause of Type 2 diabetes,
  • with inflammation, and with
  • hormone-making.

Particular genes were found to be turned on before Type 2 diabetes was able to be detected. The researchers are optimistic about finding a way to diagnose the transition to Type 2 diabetes before it takes place.

Being able to diagnose the transition to this form of diabetes is interesting but unlikely to be readily available soon. The cost is bound to be prohibitive, and a biopsy of the liver, fat, and muscles is not part of a regular examination and laboratory panel. Doctors will have to make a decision on which of their patients should have the testing and how often: such as testing every six months in those people with some of the risk factors. Until tissue testing becomes common, we will need to rely on blood sugar levels and HbA1c readings for screening and diagnosis.

Risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include…

  • a family history in parents or siblings,
  • being overweight or obese,
  • leading a sedentary lifestyle,
  • being aged over 40,
  • belonging to a particular race such as African, Hispanic, American Indian, Asian, and Pacific Islander,
  • having a history of Gestational or pregnancy-related diabetes in the past 5 to 10 years,
  • giving birth to a child weighing 9 pounds or more.
  • having been either overweight or underweight at birth,
  • having a mother who had been diagnosed with Gestational diabetes.

The American Association of Family Practice recommends screening overweight and obese individuals 40 to 70 years of age every three years. The American Diabetes Association has much the same recommendation, screening at 45 years of age and every three years after that. Of course, the recommendations apply to healthy people as well. If high blood sugar levels are suspected, then testing is appropriate at any age.…

Maslow on My Mind: How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Affects Business and Society

Maslow on My Mind: How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Affects Business and Society

Introduction: Maslow in the Big Apple

Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 to poor, uneducated Russian immigrants. He was the oldest of seven children, and therefore pushed by his parents to succeed in education where they had not. Originally studying to be a lawyer, he found it to be of little interest and eventually shifted over to psychology where he excelled. Maslow went on to receive his PhD in Psychology at the University of Wisconsin, under the tutelage of Harry Harlow, famous for experimentation with rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. After some time he returned to New York and began studying human sexuality. In addition to this study, during the years of teaching, he had the opportunity to meet many well-respected psychologists which further helped to shape his thoughts on the human needs. The final event which led Maslow to move in the humanistic direction came from the study of the development of the concept of “self-actualization”. It was this study that led Maslow to develop his famous Hierarchy of Needs Theory.[1]

Food for thought: What humans really need

Until Maslow began to develop his theories, most studies on human nature focused on biology, achievement or power to explain the forces that drive us.

Maslow postulated that there were five levels of basic needs that every human attempts to attain:

Externally-Satisfied Needs (basic needs that every individual must satisfy before they can progress).

1. Physiological – I’m hungry.

2. Safety – I’m scared.

Internally-Satisfied Needs (needs leading to enlightenment and understanding.

3. Social – I’m lonely.

4. Esteem – I can’t.

5. Self Actualization – I can!

In the 1970s, Maslow further split this hierarchy up into a total of eight levels:[2]

1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;

2) Safety/security: out of danger;

3) Belonging and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and

4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.

5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore; (new)

6) Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty; (new)

7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential; and

8) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. (new) (This concept is relatively new and many authors such as Dr. Stephen covey express similar views.)[3]

Another way to look at the Needs is to break it into “D-Needs” (Deficiency) and “B-Needs” (Being). Maslow believed that the deficiency needs, once satisfied ceased to be a driving force for the individual, and they were then free to move upward to developing themselves.

If we follow the traditional hierarchical form, we can see that each need forms the basis of the next need above it in the pyramid. Without these previous foundations, Maslow believed that it is impossible to move on to the next stage in the hierarchy.[4]

In spite of the fact that it is very well-known and intrinsically comforting, there seems to be little hard evidence that the theory actually applies to people in general. Even Maslow …

East Or West, Home Is Always Best – Love for Your Land

East Or West, Home Is Always Best – Love for Your Land

Manoj was a teacher in a small village in Mumbai. Despite his meager earnings he educated his son Ram who was equal to the task by performing extremely well in his studies. Aiming for highest qualification in Computer Science, Ram stood first in school followed by a top 10 rank in entrance exam of Indian Institute of Technology.

Yearning for recognition, after Completing B.Tech with top honours, Ram got an Offer from a leading university in USA for doing his masters with full scholarship and he sought his father’s consent. Considering the enormous opportunities it provided, Manoj reluctantly agreed to send him abroad.

Completing MS in Computer Science Ram got a job as research executive in a software company. He wrote about this offer to his dad, His parents were expecting to spend their last few years of life with their son in Mumbai and the thought of further delay pained them. Nevertheless the news that Ram was coming to Mumbai for Diwal (a popular Indian Festival)i, a fortnight later, offered some solace to the elderly couple.

On this pretext Manoj wanted to get his son married during the visit so that Ram could take his wife with him to USA. Manoj’s friend Rakesh met him in the market and informed him that he was looking for a suitable boy for his daughter Shreya, who had completed her medical degree. Manoj shared the information about his son with Rakesh, who was keen to get his daughter married to Ram.

Upon his return from market Manoj informed his wife about the offer and said that he had invited Rakesh and his daughter to come home for Diwali, when they can meet Ram also. Ram arrived from USA and was told about the proposal to marry Shreya.

Nevertheless his mother was not happy because Ram would be leaving with Shreya to USA after marriage. Shreya and her father spent Diwali with the Manojs and Ram gave his consent to marry Shreya.

To complete various formalities that remained to be done, Ram was running around. He had to tie up some loose ends for his Job. He returned one evening yelling, “Mom I have made all the arrangements for the Job and it is just the Marriage that we should take care of.”

Reacting slowly his mother asked him when he was planning to leave for USA with Shreya. Ram winked at her and asked, “Mom do you feel you had enough and want me to leave soon!!”.With tears streaming down her face she started crying. Ram hurriedly apologized to her, “Mom I was just kidding, don’t I know how much you love me,”

Yet she was not consoled. He then made his parents sit comfortably and started saying. “Mom I am not going anywhere leaving you and Papa. Technology has improved so much that Location is no more a constraint for business. I have made arrangements to work from Mumbai and send the software abroad.”. His Mom leapt with Joy and hugged …

How To Become A Bartender In Australia

How To Become A Bartender In Australia

Bartending is one of the oldest professions in the world, it is also a way to work and earn a great living while traveling around the Australia and having fun. A popular employment option for backpackers wanting to travel around Australia, University students needing to work around their busy schedules and of course the increasing number of people looking at bartending a career choice.

In Australia however, it is not a career that you can just walk into and start. You will need to undergo some training and have a current Responsible Service of Alcohol (RSA) Certificate before you can be considered for a bartending position. Holding a RSA Certificate is mandatory in Australia and any premises that lets you serve alcohol without one is breaking the law.

To gain an RSA Certificate is relatively convenient. You can take the course online, at a Tafe collage or private institution anywhere around the country.

During your RSA Certificate training you will become familiar with:

  • Learning and understanding the effects of alcohol on society and a person’s health
  • How to identify who to refuse service and how to deal with these patrons
  • Understanding and knowledge of liquor legislations and the consequences/penalties that are enforced in Australia
  • Helping patrons drink within the laws enforced in Australia
  • How to assist a patron if they have become overly affected by alcohol
  • As well as other industry news, regulations and skills

Other skills that will help you gain a bartending job in Australia:

  • Drink knowledge – The most common skill that is needed in Australia is how to pour a fantastic beer. Australian’s are very critical on the perfect beer pour and the common pour from the rest of the world will not make the grade here. Knowledge of spirits and cocktails is also advisable, but can also be learnt easily on the job.
  • Personality – Having a great personality will help you elevate your bartending career. A happy bartender will keep patrons in a happy mood, happy patrons are more likely to spend money of beverages and leave bigger tips. The really good bartenders will earn more from tips than their wage.
  • Flexibility – A bartending career can cover a range of tasks, from customer service to stock control. It can also let you work at any time of day if you can make yourself available. Employers are also likely to favour the bartender that shows flexibility in the workplace.

Don’t delay in taking the first step to becoming a bartender, complete an RSA course and you will not look back on your decision on becoming a bartender.…

Exercise On An Elliptical Trainer To Improve Your Mood

Exercise On An Elliptical Trainer To Improve Your Mood

Even the most optimistic people have gone through times when they did not view their life in a positive light. Some people struggle with a depressed mood on a regular basis, while most will become more anxious and depressed in response to a negative event, such as prolonged unemployment, a divorce, or the death of a loved one. The medical profession has a number of drugs they can prescribe, but all drugs have side effects and may not be that effective at treating the problem. Exercise is an option that can enhance mood that offers other positive effects for your overall health. An elliptical trainer has the features that make it an ideal fitness machine to improve your mood.

Research on anxiety, depression and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. And after you feel better, continuing to exercise may keep anxiety and depression from coming back.

Duke University conducted a randomized controlled trial in 1999 that concluded that depressed adults who participated in an aerobic exercise program improved as much as those treated with sertraline, the drug Pfizer marketed as Zoloft.

Phillip Holmes, a neuroscience professor at the University, has shown that several weeks of exercise can switch on certain genes that increase the brain’s level of galanin, a peptide neurotransmitter that appears to tone down the body’s stress response by regulating another brain chemical, norepinephrine. This causes the brain to show less stress in response to new stimuli.

Exercise releases endorphins, which are feel-good chemicals that aid with the symptoms of depression. There are more of these chemicals released as you increase the intensity of the workout, which is why it may take less time exercising to improve your mood when you do more vigorous activities. An elliptical trainer can give you the type of vigorous workout you need to be most effective at combating anxiety and depression. As your fitness improves, you can really amp up the intensity of an elliptical workout by increasing resistance, incline, or strides per minute. The elliptical workout is also effective at changing your body composition, increasing lean body mass and reducing fat, and that can have a positive effect on self esteem.

Exercise can be effective way to enhance mood and combat anxiety and depression. A new or used elliptical trainer is a great way to get the exercise you need to look and feel you best.…

Brad Pitt and His Accomplishments

Brad Pitt and His Accomplishments

William Bradley Pitt or Brad Pitt was born on December 18, 1963 in Shawnee, Oklahoma to parents William Alvin Pitt, a truck company owner, and Jane Etta Pitt, a high school guidance counselor. He has two younger siblings, Doug and Julie Neal. Despite being born in Oklahoma, the Pitts grew up in Springfield, Missouri, and were raised as conservative Southern Baptists. He attended and excelled in high school at the Kickapoo High School, where he was very active in extra-curricular activities and sports such as swimming, tennis, golf, debates, and in high school musicals. He went on to study at the University of Missouri where he majored in journalism and advertising. During his last semester at the university, Brad realized that he had stronger aspirations in the world of acting, dropped out, and headed to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career.

Pitt had a string of odd jobs in Los Angeles, from being a stripper’s chauffeur to delivering refrigerators. All these he did while enrolling himself in acting classes. After seven months of hard work, Brad Pitt was able to get his own agent as well as acting jobs. He first started in television in shows such as Dallas, Growing Pains, and Another World. During these years, he also met his then-girlfriend Juliette Lewis during the filming of a TV movie Too Young to Die. In 1989, Pitt had his big screen debut in Cutting Class, but it was his role in Ridley Scott’s Thelma and Louis that caught Hollywood’s attention. Unfortunately, his next few films The Favor, Johnny Suede, and Cool World were not enough to boost his credibility as an actor and just garnered him the title of a Hollywood pretty boy. Only when he starred in A River Runs through It later that same year did he deliver such a great performance that Hollywood took notice of Pitt as more than just a pretty face. His next major role which again garnered much critical attention was in the movie Interview with the Vampire with Tom Cruise. His following films Legends of the Fall and Seven only secured his place in Hollywood. During the filming of Seven, he met and fell in love at first sight with then quite unknown actress Gwyneth Paltrow and eventually got engaged after two and a half years together. Sadly, the couple split for unknown reasons seven months after their engagement.

Pitt went on to star in critically acclaimed films such as Devil’s Own, Seven Years in Tibet, Meet Joe Black, and Twelve Monkeys for which he won a Golden Globe as best supporting actor. He later reteamed with David Fincher, director of Seven, to shoot the film Fight Club which soon became a cult film. Soon after, Pitt worked on more critically acclaimed films such as Snatch, Troy, and the Ocean’s Eleven franchise. In 2005, he worked on the film Mr. and Mrs. Smith with Angelina Jolie, whom he would later end up with three adopted children and three biological children. …

A Quick Biography of Jacob Bogatin

A Quick Biography of Jacob Bogatin

Jacob Bogatin, born as Yakov Gershevich Bogatin on August, 13th in 1947. He attended Saratov’s elementary and middle schools. Then he continued his education in Saratov’s Mathematical School. Being in the 9th grade Jacob started a pilot and sky jumping program in Gagarin Aviation School. In 1965 after graduation from high school the young man applied to Cinematography College in Moscow but it was unsuccessful. Later he was accepted in Saratov State University and graduated with physics degree in 1970.

Immediately afterwards Jacob took a junior research post at Saratov State University and got a PhD in Physics. Since then he had established the largest magnetic laboratory in Volga region and equipped it with modern scientific machinery such as: Jeol and Comeca Micro analyzer, Magnetic Spectra analyzer and 500 thousand magnification Electronic microscopes. In 1971 he got married. From 1973 till 1985 the professor published over 100 articles about permanent magnets. In 1978 young fellow invented the powerful ND-Fe-B permanent magnets which are used in electronics, cars and jets nowadays. In 1977 Jacob received a full professorship in physics. Under his leadership many undergraduate students got their PhD’s and became scientists. His relationship with Russian government started worsening right after his mother and sister immigrated to Israel. In 1985 young professor applied for an immigration visa which was denied twice. In 1987 the man finally granted a permission to leave Russia and immigrate to the United States. His family was given 10 days to leave Russia.

In 1987 Bogatin emigrated to the USA and joined the Airspace Company in Jenkintown, Pennsylvania. From 1987 to 1988 he had been a manager of magnetic department and built a research center with magnetic laboratory. In 1989 he invented the first Uranium Rare-Earth Metal Magnet along with the Aquanides Magnet.

During 1988-1993 the scientist lectured at UPEN for an undergraduate program.

His children graduated in 1992 and 1998 from UPEN and Haneman University, they got married later on. His daughter has two children, his son has one child.

In 1993 the scholar organized a Magnetic Company to manufacture magnets.

In 1998 Jacob started a green field operation for his daughter and his son-in-law. Moreover, in 2000 he built a 3500 feet medical center with a doctor’s office, radiology and physical therapy departments.

In 2002 he made a decision to issue the first glossy monthly publication for the Russian community in the USA and Canada called The Health Magazine. Five years later the magazine became the only successful periodical with a circulation of over 50,000 copies per month.

In 2002 the scientist was hired by a group of private investors to build a 22000 square feet diagnostic center. In 2003 Radiology department with 25 employees opened its doors to give community an access for the newest technology: Siemens 1.5 tesla short board MRI, 64 slices CT Scan, Dual head Nuclear medicine and many more.

In 2003 the professor opened a Sleep Disorder Center for patients with sleep disorders.

In 2004 Jacob completed a radiation oncology …

His Most Famous Sculpture (Lipstick (Ascending) On Caterpillar Tracks) – Claes Oldenburg

His Most Famous Sculpture (Lipstick (Ascending) On Caterpillar Tracks) – Claes Oldenburg

Swedish sculptor Claes Oldenburg created the splendid ‘Installation Art,’ “Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks,” during 1969-1974. The masterpiece is installed at Samuel F. B. Morse College, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

The body of the mysterious “Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks” comprises of a 24 feet lipstick standing on a tank track, which the artist called ‘caterpillar.’ Made out of cost-efficient raw materials, Claes employed plywood track for the base and red vinyl balloon top, to be puffed up for better visibility and gaining focus. He used Cor-Ten steel, steel, aluminum, cast resin that was painted with polyurethane enamel. Measuring good 23’6″ x 24’11” x 10’11” (7.2m x 7.6m x 3.3m), Stuart Wrede and students at the Yale School of Architecture commissioned the artwork in January 1969.

“Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks” was originally installed on May 15, 1969, at Beinecke Plaza (Hewitt Quadrangle), Yale University, to be inaugurated on October 17, 1974. The innovative concept of constructing a gold-colored tube of orange lipstick, mounted on a large steel base, equipped with rust-colored caterpillar treads, gathered a lot of crowd and took Yale by surprise. It was Oldenburg’s first monumental public sculpture.

The gigantic artwork symbolizes antiwar sentiments of the students of the art school. As a goodwill gesture, everyone from Yale, right from its students, to teaching faculty, to alumni, contributed towards the cost of construction. In harmony, Oldenburg too did not charge any fee for “Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks.” He called the group working secretly for the installation, as the Colossal Keepsake Corporation of Connecticut. Claes decided upon Beinecke Plaza as the site of installation.

Eventually, the Corporation legally presented the artwork to Yale. Vincent Scully, a Professor of Morse College, lightly commented, “the Beinecke’s natural complement on the dressing table.” Towards the end of Vietnam War, the rebellious impact was turned vocal even in the Art College. The tank-shaped base of Cales’ “Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks” was used as a rally platform, and the installation was subsequently laden with posters and scribbles. By March 1970, the wooden tracks of the installation had rotted due to environmental exposure and abuse. Oldenburg moved the sculpture to its construction factory in North Haven. The next year, historians and art professors decided to bring it back for its final installation in college campus.

Even today, Morse college students retrieve inspiration from the enigmatic monument. The students of Yale say, “Morse without Lipstick is like Yale without Harkness (minus the bells).”…