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Short Introduction to Naturalist Charles Darwin

Short Introduction to Naturalist Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who devoted his life to the study of nature and geology. He is best known for his extensive contributions to the study of evolution.

Darwin was born in 1809 to a wealthy family. His father was a prominent doctor who influenced Darwin to study medicine in his youth. He was sent to continue in his footsteps at the University of Edinburgh Medical School. To his father’s dismay Darwin was squeamish during surgeries and uninterested in lectures.

Despite being enrolled at the best medical school in the UK Darwin focused his attention on theories that challenged religious entanglements with science. He became immersed in the study of marine invertebrates, and spent a great deal of time learning to classify plants and assemble the botany collection of the University Museum.

Darwin’s father attempted to reshape his interests again by transferring him to Cambridge’s Christ College. This course of education would have led Darwin to become an Anglican parson, but Darwin had other ideas. He spent a great deal of time on recreation, and on assembling a large beetle collection. He graduated in 1831 with an ordinary degree and a great deal of interest in natural theology. He had become a close friend of botanist and professor John Stevens Henslow who would subsequently recommend Darwin embark on an expedition on the HMS Beagle.

Darwin boarded the HMS Beagle in 1831 in the role of the gentleman naturalist. The five year voyage was intended to survey the South American coastline. Darwin assisted with geological surveys and kept a journal of his findings while also collecting fossils. At the end of the journey Darwin wrote that his findings seemed to reveal secrets about the origin of species. He’d also completed a great deal of experiential research pertaining to anthropology,geology, and zoology. Excerpts from his journals and letters had been distributed amongst scientific circles in England.

By March of 1837 as he organized his findings in writing Darwin mapped out his perception of an evolutionary tree. By June he was including his thoughts about sexual reproduction and lifespan as they applied to the adaptations of species. He used this research as a basis for his most famous theory of natural selection which was finally published in 1856.

Darwin died in 1882 at the age of 73 after a long life of scientific study. His published works provide immense value globally, and he has been described as among the most truly influential people in the world’s history.…

Deinotherium A Bizarre Extinct Elephant

Deinotherium A Bizarre Extinct Elephant

Deinotherium – Bizarre Extinct Elephants

The elephant family may be represented by just a handful of species and sub-species today, but the fossil record is full of bizarre forms of prehistoric elephant. Normally it is the Mammoths and Mastodons, those leviathans of the Ice Age that get all the attention, but it is pleasing to note a number of European regional museums, especially those in Germany have exhibits dedicated to Deinotherium.

Deinotherium was a member of the elephant family, however, it split from the lineage that was to produce modern elephants very early in the Proboscidae evolutionary history. As a result, Deinotherium genera are not closely related to Mastodons, or Mammoths or even today’s African and Asian elephants.

Regarded as a “Stupid” Elephant

Modern elephants are regarded as being highly intelligent mammals by biologists. The skull of Deinotheres was flattened and lacked the domed cranium seen in extant species, so scientists have speculated that the Deinotheres were not particularly intelligent when compared to the modern elephants. However, there is very little scientific evidence regarding the size of the prefrontal cortex, that part of the brain associated with higher functions such as memory and planning. The European species of Deinotherium – Deinotherium giganteum had proportionately longer legs than other prehistoric elephants. Palaeontologists have speculated that this was an adaptation to a hotter, drier world with large herbivores having to migrate long distances to find suitable feeding grounds. The long legs of Deinotherium would have helped make it a very efficient walker.

Bizarre Tusks of the Deinotheres

The front part of the lower jaw was turned downwards and the two front incisors of Deinotherium formed two tusks that also curved downwards towards the ground in a hook-like appendage. Some of these incisors that formed tusks have been measured and recorded at over seventy-five centimetres in length. Deinotheres had trunks just like modern elephants but the trunk was proportionately shorter.

Palaeontologists still debate the purpose of these bizarre downward pointing tusks. Some scientists have suggested that these enlarged incisors were used to hook branches and pull them down so that the animal could feed more easily on leaves and fruit. Other researchers have put forward the theory that Deinotheres ate bark and the incisors could tear bark from trees. This may have given these large herbivores access to a foodstuff that other browsers and grazers could not exploit.

Analysis of the large teeth of these extinct elephants suggest that they did not eat gritty materials, such as grass pulled out of the earth, they probably preferred forest habitats and they browsed on soft fruits and leaves. There is fossil evidence to suggest that these elephants tended to live in woodland or forested areas, with other types of prehistoric elephant more closely related to modern African elephants living on the open savannah.

Out of Africa

The fossil record shows that, just like hominids, Deinotheres first evolved in Africa. This type of prehistoric elephant spread over a large geographical area, fossils of Deinotherium species have …

13 Different Types of Engineering Explained

13 Different Types of Engineering Explained

As a student considering your options for college or university, the choices can be overwhelming. This is the case even within certain disciplines where there might be a dozen different subcategories and / or specialties within the profession. Let’s explore some of the more popular Engineering disciplines, shall we?

Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that strives to apply engineering science to agricultural production and farming. In some circles it is commonly accepted that the scope of agricultural engineering is broader than all other forms of engineering, as it combines elements of mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering with animal and plant biology.

Architectural Engineering involves the application of engineering principles to building construction and design. In some parts of the world, the words architect and architectural engineer are used interchangeably.

Biomedical Engineering strives to apply engineering principles and technology to the field of medicine. Originally considered an interdisciplinary specialization, biomedical eng has grown to become a respected discipline of its own. Tissue engineering, while also considered a specialization within biotechnology, is one such example of biomedical engineering in action.

Ceramic Engineering relates to the practice of designing and creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. The process generally includes the purification of raw materials, the production of compounds, their formation into components, and the study of their composition, properties and structure.

Civil Engineering is a discipline that deals primarily with the design, construction and maintenance of bridges, roads, canals, and the like. As a point of interest, this engineering discipline was enshrined to distinguish itself from military engineering. It is considered the second-oldest discipline, after military.

Computer Engineering is a combination of computer science and electronic engineering. Computer engineers design both computer software and computer hardware, in addition to developing solutions for the integration of the two.

Electrical Engineering is the study and application of electromagnetism, electronics, and electricity. It’s a broad-based discipline that encompasses the design and implementation of various electronic / electrical systems such as circuits, generators, motors, and transformers.

Environmental Engineering refers to the application of scientific principles to environmental improvement. Generally speaking, this discipline attempts to provide healthy air, water and land for safe habitation. Additionally, this particular discipline attempts to find ways to reverse environmental damages caused by pollution.

Industrial Engineering is a discipline concerned with the development and ongoing improvement of integrated systems. In manufacturing systems, focus is placed on finding ways to eliminate waste (time, money, materials, energy, etc). Industrial engineering is not necessarily limited to manufacturing, however.

Manufacturing Engineering, on the other hand, deals almost exclusively with the design and maintenance of different manufacturing processes, tools, equipment and machines. Lean manufacturing principles are one such example of scientific manufacturing in action.

Materials Engineering is concerned with the properties of matter and it’s application to science and technology. This generally refers to the study of the structure of materials at the molecular level, and includes elements of applied physics and chemistry. Nanotechnology is one such example of materials engineering in action.

Mechanical Engineering is …

Maslow on My Mind: How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Affects Business and Society

Maslow on My Mind: How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Affects Business and Society

Introduction: Maslow in the Big Apple

Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 to poor, uneducated Russian immigrants. He was the oldest of seven children, and therefore pushed by his parents to succeed in education where they had not. Originally studying to be a lawyer, he found it to be of little interest and eventually shifted over to psychology where he excelled. Maslow went on to receive his PhD in Psychology at the University of Wisconsin, under the tutelage of Harry Harlow, famous for experimentation with rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. After some time he returned to New York and began studying human sexuality. In addition to this study, during the years of teaching, he had the opportunity to meet many well-respected psychologists which further helped to shape his thoughts on the human needs. The final event which led Maslow to move in the humanistic direction came from the study of the development of the concept of “self-actualization”. It was this study that led Maslow to develop his famous Hierarchy of Needs Theory.[1]

Food for thought: What humans really need

Until Maslow began to develop his theories, most studies on human nature focused on biology, achievement or power to explain the forces that drive us.

Maslow postulated that there were five levels of basic needs that every human attempts to attain:

Externally-Satisfied Needs (basic needs that every individual must satisfy before they can progress).

1. Physiological – I’m hungry.

2. Safety – I’m scared.

Internally-Satisfied Needs (needs leading to enlightenment and understanding.

3. Social – I’m lonely.

4. Esteem – I can’t.

5. Self Actualization – I can!

In the 1970s, Maslow further split this hierarchy up into a total of eight levels:[2]

1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;

2) Safety/security: out of danger;

3) Belonging and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and

4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.

5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore; (new)

6) Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty; (new)

7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential; and

8) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. (new) (This concept is relatively new and many authors such as Dr. Stephen covey express similar views.)[3]

Another way to look at the Needs is to break it into “D-Needs” (Deficiency) and “B-Needs” (Being). Maslow believed that the deficiency needs, once satisfied ceased to be a driving force for the individual, and they were then free to move upward to developing themselves.

If we follow the traditional hierarchical form, we can see that each need forms the basis of the next need above it in the pyramid. Without these previous foundations, Maslow believed that it is impossible to move on to the next stage in the hierarchy.[4]

In spite of the fact that it is very well-known and intrinsically comforting, there seems to be little hard evidence that the theory actually applies to people in general. Even Maslow …

7 Fascinating and Cool Campfire Facts for Kids

7 Fascinating and Cool Campfire Facts for Kids

Campfires are the highlight of every summer camp experience and the glow of a warm fire provides the perfect opportunity for kids to enjoy time-honored traditions such as roasting marshmallows and telling ghost stories. Along with the traditional campfire stories, lessons can be learned about science and history that take on new meaning when they are taught outdoors. This season, arm your little camper with a few fascinating facts about campfires that they can share with their fellow camp friends.

1. Campfires Reach Extreme Temperatures

While everyone knows that fire is hot, campers are often surprised at the extreme temperatures a campfire can reach. It only takes a few hours for a campfire to reach 900 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hot enough to melt lead.

2. Coals Continue to Burn Underground

Many people bury their fire when they are done out of the belief that it will snuff out the flames. However, hot coals left benefit the ground can continue to smolder. If they are near tree roots or other flammable materials, then they can reignite and cause a forest fire. Coals can burn underground for an extremely long time. In Australia, Burning Mountain contains underground coal that has been smoldering for over 6,000 years.

3. Campfires Have a Long History

Evidence of what is believed to be the first-known fire has been discovered in Swartkrans, South Africa. There, charred antelope bones suggest that humans were cooking their meat over a fire as far back as 1.9 million years ago. Interestingly, it appears as though dried grass and leaves were used as kindling rather than wood.

4. A Campfire Has Many Purposes

Although campfires tend to be viewed as a gathering place for socializing, they have multiple purposes. For example, a fire can be built to signal for help when a person is lost in the woods. It can also be used to dry clothing, deter wildlife and burn refusal when there is not a trash receptacle available.

5. Netherlands Holds the Record for World's Largest Bonfire

There are many different ways to build a campfire and some people take pride in building the best. The world's largest campfire had an overall volume of 151,288 ft.. It was lit on New Year's Even in 2014 and burned for a total of five days.

6. Campfires are Color Coded

Those dancing, colorful flames are more than just fun to watch since the colors can tell you a lot about the temperature of the fire. The red light emitted comes from the cooler parts of the fire, and the bluish-white flames signal where the highest heat exists.

7. Most Wildfires Are Due to Human Error

Humans start approximately nine out of ten wildfires and campfires are the largest culprits. For this reason, it is best to use existing fire rings when they are available and always make sure a fire is completely extinguished before leaving the site.

Using a campfire for warmth, food and survival is a tradition that dates back to …

East Or West, Home Is Always Best – Love for Your Land

East Or West, Home Is Always Best – Love for Your Land

Manoj was a teacher in a small village in Mumbai. Despite his meager earnings he educated his son Ram who was equal to the task by performing extremely well in his studies. Aiming for highest qualification in Computer Science, Ram stood first in school followed by a top 10 rank in entrance exam of Indian Institute of Technology.

Yearning for recognition, after Completing B.Tech with top honours, Ram got an Offer from a leading university in USA for doing his masters with full scholarship and he sought his father’s consent. Considering the enormous opportunities it provided, Manoj reluctantly agreed to send him abroad.

Completing MS in Computer Science Ram got a job as research executive in a software company. He wrote about this offer to his dad, His parents were expecting to spend their last few years of life with their son in Mumbai and the thought of further delay pained them. Nevertheless the news that Ram was coming to Mumbai for Diwal (a popular Indian Festival)i, a fortnight later, offered some solace to the elderly couple.

On this pretext Manoj wanted to get his son married during the visit so that Ram could take his wife with him to USA. Manoj’s friend Rakesh met him in the market and informed him that he was looking for a suitable boy for his daughter Shreya, who had completed her medical degree. Manoj shared the information about his son with Rakesh, who was keen to get his daughter married to Ram.

Upon his return from market Manoj informed his wife about the offer and said that he had invited Rakesh and his daughter to come home for Diwali, when they can meet Ram also. Ram arrived from USA and was told about the proposal to marry Shreya.

Nevertheless his mother was not happy because Ram would be leaving with Shreya to USA after marriage. Shreya and her father spent Diwali with the Manojs and Ram gave his consent to marry Shreya.

To complete various formalities that remained to be done, Ram was running around. He had to tie up some loose ends for his Job. He returned one evening yelling, “Mom I have made all the arrangements for the Job and it is just the Marriage that we should take care of.”

Reacting slowly his mother asked him when he was planning to leave for USA with Shreya. Ram winked at her and asked, “Mom do you feel you had enough and want me to leave soon!!”.With tears streaming down her face she started crying. Ram hurriedly apologized to her, “Mom I was just kidding, don’t I know how much you love me,”

Yet she was not consoled. He then made his parents sit comfortably and started saying. “Mom I am not going anywhere leaving you and Papa. Technology has improved so much that Location is no more a constraint for business. I have made arrangements to work from Mumbai and send the software abroad.”. His Mom leapt with Joy and hugged …

Jesus Christ Our Savior – Was He a Scientist?

Jesus Christ Our Savior – Was He a Scientist?

Many people across the globe continue to ask themselves about the nature of Jesus Christ, the son of God and what made Him popular across the world in the 33 years that He lived here on planet earth. Was He a political leader, a magician, a sociologist or a scientist? This article examines the nature of Jesus Christ in relation to science.

Up to today many are puzzled about the birth of Jesus Christ by the Virgin Mary who slept with no man. Although she had Joseph as her husband, the Bible says that she did not sleep with him but got pregnant by the power of the Holy Spirit, a situation which did not involve the normal biological phenomenon of fertilization. This type of birth, however, is also biological because biology talks about parthenogenesis, a type of reproduction that does not involve fertilization in certain organisms like aphids. Therefore the birth of Jesus was scientific and biological.

He changed water into wine- This was the first miracle that Jesus performed at the wedding of Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-9). This is the chemistry of fermentation but this time from water and not carbohydrates. Was Jesus therefore a chemist? Why change water to wine and it was served to the people at the wedding? This should not be taken wholesale because the dangers of alcohol are well known to everyone. Wine was the drink of the time and He did this out of His concern for the good of the people.

His first sermon on the mount in Matt 5, Jesus refers to His followers as the light and salt of the world. Jesus here is ecologically explaining to the world the importance of light as the source of energy for all living things. Primary producers, the plants, obtain their energy from the sun and the former pass on this energy to other living organisms at higher trophic levels such as herbivores and then to the carnivores. Jesus therefore, urges His followers to be the source of life to the whole world and to provide direction to the many who live in darkness.

The chemistry of salt as a preservative, taste giving, wound healing and its importance in the body’s coordinating system was well understood by Jesus Christ. Without the knowledge of Science Jesus would not have used this example in His teaching. He calls upon His followers to be the salt of the world-preserve, give taste, heal and coordinate the world’s activities accordingly in order to bring harmony among the people.

What about His many miracles of healing and deliverance? Can we call Him a doctor? Since He was concerned with the health of individuals, their need for feeding to prevent them from ulcers and malnutrition as well as their emotional concerns, Jesus can be regarded as a doctor. His love, care and none-discriminative approach are all characteristic of a good medical doctor. So Jesus was a real doctor.

It is therefore; appropriate to call Jesus Christ a scientist. …

How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

Electrical engineering may seem like a boring profession, especially if the first person that comes to mind is the public utility repairman who fixed the neighborhood power grid. Contrary to popular belief, a degree in electrical engineering leads to career opportunities bigger than that. Behind some of the latest and greatest innovations is a workforce that is well-versed on the subject.

Cellular Telecommunications

A few decades ago, the first publicly available handheld phones were bulky and with bad reception. By the 90’s and with thanks to the electrical engineering developments towards GSM technologies, mobile phones soon did more than just make and receive calls. Today, it has become a race to the smallest, most multi-functional mobile phone. Headway in electrical engineering and the subsequent circulation of the science means more companies need creative individuals. And this is just to keep up with the competition. That’s not even taking into account the perks of such a world-changing occupation.

Computer Electronics

The boost in the mobile world is owed largely to the impressive breakthroughs in computer technology. These original steps forward are owed to the electrical engineering concepts behind them. Even now, electrical engineering knowhow is necessary in order to come up with devices that get continually more complex as its operation becomes simpler. Before the software developers came up with the applications that make our lives easier, someone made the increasingly sophisticated networks and computers that they are stored in. Whose midnight oil do you think was burned to make the hardware and software giants the successes that they are?

Space Exploration

Rocket science may have been ultimately responsible for putting a man on the moon. Yet it was the resolve and commitment of electrical engineering professionals that made it possible to see three-dimensional renditions of the planet Mars. It is their skills that are put to the test when equipment stop functioning or have new requirements. They continue to challenge the existing limitations by changing how we view them and the world in general. This makes them the best bet towards future journeys outside our solar system.

You may intend to follow in the innovative entrepreneurial milestones of and expert like Thomas Edison. You may idolize the large leaps and bounds in the science made by Nikola Tesla. Either way, electrical engineering has a place for you. All it asks is that you stay passionate, motivated and dedicated to persevere and make those milestones, leaps and bounds.…

Dr Reverend Michael Bernard Beckwith

Dr Reverend Michael Bernard Beckwith

Michael Beckwith was born in 1956. His first experience with religion wasn’t an entirely pleasant one, and he left his native Methodist and Congregational church at 16. As he has said since, “it just wasn’t feeding me. I liked the teachings of Jesus, but I didn’t see people practicing what he said.” Like many other baby boomers, he began investigating Eastern and African modes of spirituality the 1970s. However, unlike many of them, he decided to found his own church by the time he was 30.

The interdenominational church that became Agape was founded on the notion of New Thought-Ancient Wisdom — generally that focusing your mind and training your thoughts allows you could more fully experience the single divine force at the heart of every living thing and communicate that to others through your actions. Though the New Thought Movement is quite old, going as far back in one form or another to such figures from the turn of the last century as William Walker Atkinson and Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, it remains vital today as several different denominations, such as Religious Science.

Michael was ordained in Religious Science in 1985, and he soon began teaching a few friends at his home. In 1986 he founded Agape International Spiritual Centre in Santa Monica, California. In just a few years, membership swelled. Eventually the ministry found a new, much larger home in Culver City, California, where it remains today.

What started out as that small gathering of practitioners has today grown into a centre that serves a congregation estimated at nearly 10,000 each week. While the message may seem to differ from that of the more “mainstream” churches, Reverend Beckwith’s church is responsible for a bevy of ministries such as, aiding poor and disadvantaged individuals in the US and worldwide. Other campaigns include supporting orphanages for the survivors of AIDS, the peace movement, food distribution to the local homeless populations and environmental advocacy.

Today, the Church itself is a model of interracial and interdenominational harmony. Indeed, many members continue with their various faiths in addition to feeling the message at Agape. While the congregation does include the wealthy and powerful people who live and work in the nearby area, people of all backgrounds witness the rousing spectacle that is a service at Beckwith’s church.

As a founding member of the Association for Global New Thought in 2000, “dedicated to creating a spiritual transformation of the Earth as a whole,” Michael continues working to promote peace and forgiveness. The charter documents declare an emphasis on the shared nature of all life and the birthright of abundance that is each member’s right.

The Reverend Beckwith has received a great deal of attention lately, from other devotional and service groups, appearing as a guest columnist in several devotional websites and magazines. With other members of the New Thought movement, he had an audience with the Dali Lama. At Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, the all-black men’s institution has installed him in their Wall of …

Many Advantages of Autoclaves

Many Advantages of Autoclaves

Autoclaves are instruments that are made to bear steam at a temperature of 121 degrees Celsius and pressure so as to sterilise them. The pressure and heat eliminates the bacteria, and other pathogens effectively so that autoclaves can be used extensively in medical facilities and laboratories for the preparation of life science application and culture media for microbiology, to sterilize medical instruments, glassware and to decontaminate harmful medical waste after disposal.

Autoclaves are the sterilization apparatus of choice in hospitals and laboratories. They are also used in dentistry, veterinary medicine, development and research of food production and pharmaceuticals facilities. Large and small autoclaves can be utilized anywhere considering the sterilization of the equipment is significant to ensuring the result of the process, the safety of public and person like in business which offer body piercing and tattooing services.

One of the issues with the autoclaving materials that is used in the process of sterilizing in the life science laboratories is moisture, heat and pressure which may lead to some degradation. This is a major concern with media utilized for culturing microorganisms, as some of them may be thermolabile and can affect the performance negatively or render them unusable. With the advanced production of small and large autoclaves, this concern has been somewhat addresses as manufacturers have made these newer versions to work at settings that offer thorough sterilization without leading to a critical reduction in the usability and performance of heat sensitive materials.

The high pressure steam utilized in autoclaving offers effective means of sterilization than application of only heated air. The high pressurized steam at 134 degree C is typically used in autoclaves to sterilize it in few minutes as compared to 2 hours of time taken by the hot air at a temperature of 160 degree C, making sure that the interior of the autoclave is free of air is important. In recent autoclaves, air can be removed by the steam action creating a downward displacement of air and pushing it out through a drain from the unit. Some of the autoclaves also use make use of a vacuum pump.

Autoclaves are also used in industrial applications where materials and parts require to be sterilized thoroughly during the process of production, this is comparatively less common in industries working with composite materials, specifically in the aerospace sector. Large sized autoclaves may be needed to accommodate some of the components because of their sheer size. Safety is a matter of great concern while using these devices.

The large autoclave devices require to be designed to offer a secure feature and closure highly reinforced walls that can bear the rigours of round the clock and regular use. Autoclaves offer complete elimination of bacteria and other pathogens, ensuring safety of the devices used in medical fields and decreasing the harmful threat posed by the veterinary waste and permit more accurate outcomes in laboratory experiments.…