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Day: August 1, 2017

Deinotherium A Bizarre Extinct Elephant

Deinotherium A Bizarre Extinct Elephant

Deinotherium – Bizarre Extinct Elephants

The elephant family may be represented by just a handful of species and sub-species today, but the fossil record is full of bizarre forms of prehistoric elephant. Normally it is the Mammoths and Mastodons, those leviathans of the Ice Age that get all the attention, but it is pleasing to note a number of European regional museums, especially those in Germany have exhibits dedicated to Deinotherium.

Deinotherium was a member of the elephant family, however, it split from the lineage that was to produce modern elephants very early in the Proboscidae evolutionary history. As a result, Deinotherium genera are not closely related to Mastodons, or Mammoths or even today’s African and Asian elephants.

Regarded as a “Stupid” Elephant

Modern elephants are regarded as being highly intelligent mammals by biologists. The skull of Deinotheres was flattened and lacked the domed cranium seen in extant species, so scientists have speculated that the Deinotheres were not particularly intelligent when compared to the modern elephants. However, there is very little scientific evidence regarding the size of the prefrontal cortex, that part of the brain associated with higher functions such as memory and planning. The European species of Deinotherium – Deinotherium giganteum had proportionately longer legs than other prehistoric elephants. Palaeontologists have speculated that this was an adaptation to a hotter, drier world with large herbivores having to migrate long distances to find suitable feeding grounds. The long legs of Deinotherium would have helped make it a very efficient walker.

Bizarre Tusks of the Deinotheres

The front part of the lower jaw was turned downwards and the two front incisors of Deinotherium formed two tusks that also curved downwards towards the ground in a hook-like appendage. Some of these incisors that formed tusks have been measured and recorded at over seventy-five centimetres in length. Deinotheres had trunks just like modern elephants but the trunk was proportionately shorter.

Palaeontologists still debate the purpose of these bizarre downward pointing tusks. Some scientists have suggested that these enlarged incisors were used to hook branches and pull them down so that the animal could feed more easily on leaves and fruit. Other researchers have put forward the theory that Deinotheres ate bark and the incisors could tear bark from trees. This may have given these large herbivores access to a foodstuff that other browsers and grazers could not exploit.

Analysis of the large teeth of these extinct elephants suggest that they did not eat gritty materials, such as grass pulled out of the earth, they probably preferred forest habitats and they browsed on soft fruits and leaves. There is fossil evidence to suggest that these elephants tended to live in woodland or forested areas, with other types of prehistoric elephant more closely related to modern African elephants living on the open savannah.

Out of Africa

The fossil record shows that, just like hominids, Deinotheres first evolved in Africa. This type of prehistoric elephant spread over a large geographical area, fossils of Deinotherium species have …

Puerto Princesa School of Arts and Trades: Technical Education and Training Provider in Palawan

Puerto Princesa School of Arts and Trades: Technical Education and Training Provider in Palawan

PPSAT is one of the 125 Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Technology (TESDA) Institutions in the Philippines. It provides competency-based training programs and strengthens linkages with partners to develop competent workers for local and global employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for quality life. The school is an Accredited Assessment Center and Venue for various qualifications; a Regional Site for Language Skills Programs since 2008. It offers 16 Qualifications registered under the Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS). In December 2011, the school offered Training Methodology Program for the trainers handling TVET qualifications.

In October, 2011, the school has been accredited with the Asia Pacific Accreditation and Certification Commission (APACC) and a recipient of a bronze level award. This shows that its physical resources, faculty, curriculum, governance and management, are as good as those in the Asia Pacific Region’s TVET schools. The award received motivates its faculty and staff to continue working for the attainment of school’s vision, mission and objectives; as it belongs to the first 21 schools of the 125 to submit for accreditation.

As of these days, the school does not only cater high school graduates. It accommodates college graduates who wants to be technically trained, college undergraduates who dropped from school due to financial constraints, military personnel endorsed by officials from the Armed Forces to take programs prior to their retirement. It likewise recognizes high school undergraduates who have prior learning based on experience and graduates of the Alternative Learning System.

The Puerto Princesa School of Arts and Trades (PPSAT) is located along Rafols Road, Barangay Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. The school was created under Republic Act 7928 on March 1, 1995 to offer technology programs to the high school graduates who cannot afford to take a four-year college program. It started offering a two-year program in Construction and Electronics Sector. On March, 2003, it had been identified as a Center of Technical Excellence with Machining as its Distinctive Area of Competence. The school was one of the 41 school-beneficiary of Technical Education and Skills Development projects funded by Asian Development Bank. This leads to more programs registered and opened to serve its clients.

Currently, the school strengthens its partnership with Local Government Units, Non-Government Units and industries to meet graduates supply and employment demand of the country. It closely coordinates with the TESDA-Palawan Provincial Office and other Offices for quality delivery of services for customer satisfaction.

As of 2011, PPSAT had produced 2,413 graduates, and 64% are already working. It serves more out-of-school youths who aspire for technical jobs in the Philippines and abroad.

© 2013 March Clarissa C. Posadas…