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Month: July 2017

13 Different Types of Engineering Explained

13 Different Types of Engineering Explained

As a student considering your options for college or university, the choices can be overwhelming. This is the case even within certain disciplines where there might be a dozen different subcategories and / or specialties within the profession. Let’s explore some of the more popular Engineering disciplines, shall we?

Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that strives to apply engineering science to agricultural production and farming. In some circles it is commonly accepted that the scope of agricultural engineering is broader than all other forms of engineering, as it combines elements of mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering with animal and plant biology.

Architectural Engineering involves the application of engineering principles to building construction and design. In some parts of the world, the words architect and architectural engineer are used interchangeably.

Biomedical Engineering strives to apply engineering principles and technology to the field of medicine. Originally considered an interdisciplinary specialization, biomedical eng has grown to become a respected discipline of its own. Tissue engineering, while also considered a specialization within biotechnology, is one such example of biomedical engineering in action.

Ceramic Engineering relates to the practice of designing and creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. The process generally includes the purification of raw materials, the production of compounds, their formation into components, and the study of their composition, properties and structure.

Civil Engineering is a discipline that deals primarily with the design, construction and maintenance of bridges, roads, canals, and the like. As a point of interest, this engineering discipline was enshrined to distinguish itself from military engineering. It is considered the second-oldest discipline, after military.

Computer Engineering is a combination of computer science and electronic engineering. Computer engineers design both computer software and computer hardware, in addition to developing solutions for the integration of the two.

Electrical Engineering is the study and application of electromagnetism, electronics, and electricity. It’s a broad-based discipline that encompasses the design and implementation of various electronic / electrical systems such as circuits, generators, motors, and transformers.

Environmental Engineering refers to the application of scientific principles to environmental improvement. Generally speaking, this discipline attempts to provide healthy air, water and land for safe habitation. Additionally, this particular discipline attempts to find ways to reverse environmental damages caused by pollution.

Industrial Engineering is a discipline concerned with the development and ongoing improvement of integrated systems. In manufacturing systems, focus is placed on finding ways to eliminate waste (time, money, materials, energy, etc). Industrial engineering is not necessarily limited to manufacturing, however.

Manufacturing Engineering, on the other hand, deals almost exclusively with the design and maintenance of different manufacturing processes, tools, equipment and machines. Lean manufacturing principles are one such example of scientific manufacturing in action.

Materials Engineering is concerned with the properties of matter and it’s application to science and technology. This generally refers to the study of the structure of materials at the molecular level, and includes elements of applied physics and chemistry. Nanotechnology is one such example of materials engineering in action.

Mechanical Engineering is …

Type 2 Diabetes – Is There A Six Month Transition Time Before A Diabetes Diagnosis Is Made?

Type 2 Diabetes – Is There A Six Month Transition Time Before A Diabetes Diagnosis Is Made?

According to recent research published in July 2017 in the online journal PLOS ONE, a critical six-month transition phase occurs in people before they can be diagnosed with full-blown Type 2 diabetes. Scientists at Stanford University in Palo Alto, United States, and various other institutions in China studied 7,334 participants from the Maine (USA) State Health Information Exchange. The researchers looked at all the medical records dating back to 24 months before the Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was made. They found a critical period of six months prior to the diagnosis, a time when it might be possible to head off the disease.

In March of 2014, the journal Brief Bioinformatics reported on a similar study from the University of Shanghai in China. Their dynamic network biomarker (DNB) includes molecules that drive the body’s state from normal to diabetic. Molecules found in the liver, fat, and muscle tissue have to do with…

  • insulin resistance, the cause of Type 2 diabetes,
  • with inflammation, and with
  • hormone-making.

Particular genes were found to be turned on before Type 2 diabetes was able to be detected. The researchers are optimistic about finding a way to diagnose the transition to Type 2 diabetes before it takes place.

Being able to diagnose the transition to this form of diabetes is interesting but unlikely to be readily available soon. The cost is bound to be prohibitive, and a biopsy of the liver, fat, and muscles is not part of a regular examination and laboratory panel. Doctors will have to make a decision on which of their patients should have the testing and how often: such as testing every six months in those people with some of the risk factors. Until tissue testing becomes common, we will need to rely on blood sugar levels and HbA1c readings for screening and diagnosis.

Risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include…

  • a family history in parents or siblings,
  • being overweight or obese,
  • leading a sedentary lifestyle,
  • being aged over 40,
  • belonging to a particular race such as African, Hispanic, American Indian, Asian, and Pacific Islander,
  • having a history of Gestational or pregnancy-related diabetes in the past 5 to 10 years,
  • giving birth to a child weighing 9 pounds or more.
  • having been either overweight or underweight at birth,
  • having a mother who had been diagnosed with Gestational diabetes.

The American Association of Family Practice recommends screening overweight and obese individuals 40 to 70 years of age every three years. The American Diabetes Association has much the same recommendation, screening at 45 years of age and every three years after that. Of course, the recommendations apply to healthy people as well. If high blood sugar levels are suspected, then testing is appropriate at any age.…

Maslow on My Mind: How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Affects Business and Society

Maslow on My Mind: How Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Affects Business and Society

Introduction: Maslow in the Big Apple

Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 to poor, uneducated Russian immigrants. He was the oldest of seven children, and therefore pushed by his parents to succeed in education where they had not. Originally studying to be a lawyer, he found it to be of little interest and eventually shifted over to psychology where he excelled. Maslow went on to receive his PhD in Psychology at the University of Wisconsin, under the tutelage of Harry Harlow, famous for experimentation with rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. After some time he returned to New York and began studying human sexuality. In addition to this study, during the years of teaching, he had the opportunity to meet many well-respected psychologists which further helped to shape his thoughts on the human needs. The final event which led Maslow to move in the humanistic direction came from the study of the development of the concept of “self-actualization”. It was this study that led Maslow to develop his famous Hierarchy of Needs Theory.[1]

Food for thought: What humans really need

Until Maslow began to develop his theories, most studies on human nature focused on biology, achievement or power to explain the forces that drive us.

Maslow postulated that there were five levels of basic needs that every human attempts to attain:

Externally-Satisfied Needs (basic needs that every individual must satisfy before they can progress).

1. Physiological – I’m hungry.

2. Safety – I’m scared.

Internally-Satisfied Needs (needs leading to enlightenment and understanding.

3. Social – I’m lonely.

4. Esteem – I can’t.

5. Self Actualization – I can!

In the 1970s, Maslow further split this hierarchy up into a total of eight levels:[2]

1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;

2) Safety/security: out of danger;

3) Belonging and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and

4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.

5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore; (new)

6) Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty; (new)

7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential; and

8) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. (new) (This concept is relatively new and many authors such as Dr. Stephen covey express similar views.)[3]

Another way to look at the Needs is to break it into “D-Needs” (Deficiency) and “B-Needs” (Being). Maslow believed that the deficiency needs, once satisfied ceased to be a driving force for the individual, and they were then free to move upward to developing themselves.

If we follow the traditional hierarchical form, we can see that each need forms the basis of the next need above it in the pyramid. Without these previous foundations, Maslow believed that it is impossible to move on to the next stage in the hierarchy.[4]

In spite of the fact that it is very well-known and intrinsically comforting, there seems to be little hard evidence that the theory actually applies to people in general. Even Maslow …

How Fast Do You Need to Type to Be a Medical Transcriptionist?

How Fast Do You Need to Type to Be a Medical Transcriptionist?

Many students contemplating a career in medical transcription may have concerns about their typing speed. How fast students need to type to become medical transcriptionists depends largely upon the environment they choose to work in. The good news is that there are plenty of things students can do to improve the speed of their typing if they do not meet the standards needed to work in a traditional office environment or for one of the top online companies.

Traditional Medical Transcription Work

Typing speed requirements for medical transcriptionists that work in a traditional office environment will vary. Each business will set their own hiring standards. Faster typists are more likely to obtain work quickly and may find themselves in a position to negotiate for better wages and benefits.

Those planning to begin their transcription career in a traditional office environment should have a minimum typing speed of 30 WPM. Speeds of 50 WPM or more are preferable. Some better paying positions will not consider transcriptionists that cannot achieve speeds of 70 WPM or more. Students that want to begin a medical transcription career should not let these standards discourage them if speed of their typing falls short. There are many ways to increase their speed and plenty of online opportunities that pay for transcription work by the piece, allowing workers to set their own pace.

Online Opportunities for Medical Transcriptionists

Many online opportunities for medical transcription work pay by the piece. Typing speed is irrelevant to obtaining the position. Businesses that pay by the piece for medical transcription work will expect that assignments maintain a high standard for accuracy. Sloppy work is almost always rejected without pay. In extreme cases, assignments may be handed off to other workers for completion.

Since these online medical transcription opportunities essentially pay for performance, transcriptionists really have incentive to improve their speed and accuracy. A medical transcriptionist that can produce large volumes of highly accurate work will make far more money than one who sets lower standards for quantity and quality.

A few companies that offer work from home opportunities for medical transcription do have typing standards even if they are using a pay-by-the-piece model. They believe in offering their clients the highest standards of work and believe that only the best typists can fulfill their clients demands. These businesses may choose not to hire workers who do not meet their standards for typing speed or accuracy. On the other side, these businesses tend to pay more per piece for medical transcription work.

Freelance Medical Transcription

Freelancers set their own hours, rates of pay and standards for quality, speed and accuracy. Virtually anyone with training as a medical transcriptionist and the tools to do the job can set up their own freelance operation, regardless of typing speed. However, typing speed affects the amount of work a freelancer can commit to. As with pay-by-the-piece opportunities, faster typists will earn more money.

How to Improve Typing Speed

There are many ways transcriptionists can improve speed of …

7 Fascinating and Cool Campfire Facts for Kids

7 Fascinating and Cool Campfire Facts for Kids

Campfires are the highlight of every summer camp experience and the glow of a warm fire provides the perfect opportunity for kids to enjoy time-honored traditions such as roasting marshmallows and telling ghost stories. Along with the traditional campfire stories, lessons can be learned about science and history that take on new meaning when they are taught outdoors. This season, arm your little camper with a few fascinating facts about campfires that they can share with their fellow camp friends.

1. Campfires Reach Extreme Temperatures

While everyone knows that fire is hot, campers are often surprised at the extreme temperatures a campfire can reach. It only takes a few hours for a campfire to reach 900 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hot enough to melt lead.

2. Coals Continue to Burn Underground

Many people bury their fire when they are done out of the belief that it will snuff out the flames. However, hot coals left benefit the ground can continue to smolder. If they are near tree roots or other flammable materials, then they can reignite and cause a forest fire. Coals can burn underground for an extremely long time. In Australia, Burning Mountain contains underground coal that has been smoldering for over 6,000 years.

3. Campfires Have a Long History

Evidence of what is believed to be the first-known fire has been discovered in Swartkrans, South Africa. There, charred antelope bones suggest that humans were cooking their meat over a fire as far back as 1.9 million years ago. Interestingly, it appears as though dried grass and leaves were used as kindling rather than wood.

4. A Campfire Has Many Purposes

Although campfires tend to be viewed as a gathering place for socializing, they have multiple purposes. For example, a fire can be built to signal for help when a person is lost in the woods. It can also be used to dry clothing, deter wildlife and burn refusal when there is not a trash receptacle available.

5. Netherlands Holds the Record for World's Largest Bonfire

There are many different ways to build a campfire and some people take pride in building the best. The world's largest campfire had an overall volume of 151,288 ft.. It was lit on New Year's Even in 2014 and burned for a total of five days.

6. Campfires are Color Coded

Those dancing, colorful flames are more than just fun to watch since the colors can tell you a lot about the temperature of the fire. The red light emitted comes from the cooler parts of the fire, and the bluish-white flames signal where the highest heat exists.

7. Most Wildfires Are Due to Human Error

Humans start approximately nine out of ten wildfires and campfires are the largest culprits. For this reason, it is best to use existing fire rings when they are available and always make sure a fire is completely extinguished before leaving the site.

Using a campfire for warmth, food and survival is a tradition that dates back to …

Insurance Continuing Education – Sales Practices For Annuities

Insurance Continuing Education – Sales Practices For Annuities

It would be nice if there were no such thing as an “unethical” agent, but unfortunately this is not the case. Therefore, regulations are in force to correct the practices that cause irreparable harm to our industry and to our profession. The most often targeted of our population by these miscreants are the elderly for a variety of reasons. Fortunately the Departments of Insurance and legislatures – locally, state and federal – have created special types of regulation protection these citizens, and this is true in the field of annuity sales. There is a chapter of this text dedicated to the problems of the senior citizens with discussions of appropriate regulations and penalties for those who ignore or disregard these regulations. This section discusses the sales practices of agents marketing annuities to anyone regardless of age, recognizing that some of this will be repeated in the later discussion of marketing to the seniors.

ADVERTISING

For the purpose of this discussion and regulations, “advertising” applies not only to “ads” (which actually is an abbreviation for advertisement…). brochures, newspaper and other media articles, television and radio advertising – but primarily printed material. Envelopes, stationery, business cards and any other material that is used by an agent or insurer that are designed to describe the insurance product and to attempt to encourage a purchase of the insurance product – annuity for this discussion.

Simply put, the regulations89 are intended to insure that the insurers and agents treat their clients honestly and openly. Therefore, any advertising must not mislead those who read it and act upon the information contained in the material (with special obligations to seniors, discussed later).

Advertising is also the material that is used to generate leads through reader response, generally followed by an agent calling. It can advertise a meeting or seminar at which information is provided (also covered in detail in a separate section), or simply advertising the product of the insurer. If the advertisement is directed towards those age 65 or older, if the advertisement is used for leads, the advertiser must disclose in the advertisement that an agent may contact the person – if this is intended.

If the name of the prospect is obtained from a lead source, the source must be disclosed to those over age 65.

Even though it is in nearly all agent’s contracts, it does not hurt to point out that the insurance company must give an agent permission in writing before the agent can advertise the product.

SEMINARS, CLASSES, INFORMATIONAL MEETINGS

Agents and others who market financial products, attempt to obtain new clients by holding seminars, classes or information meetings. This is particular applicable in the Senior market, and is so discussed later in the text. Basically, the regulations require that for such a meeting to be advertised (to any age) that the advertiser must disclose their intention by adding “and insurance sales presentation” immediately following the words “seminar,” “class,” or “informational meeting.”

ADVERTISING TO THE SENIOR MARKET

Marketing of annuities …

East Or West, Home Is Always Best – Love for Your Land

East Or West, Home Is Always Best – Love for Your Land

Manoj was a teacher in a small village in Mumbai. Despite his meager earnings he educated his son Ram who was equal to the task by performing extremely well in his studies. Aiming for highest qualification in Computer Science, Ram stood first in school followed by a top 10 rank in entrance exam of Indian Institute of Technology.

Yearning for recognition, after Completing B.Tech with top honours, Ram got an Offer from a leading university in USA for doing his masters with full scholarship and he sought his father’s consent. Considering the enormous opportunities it provided, Manoj reluctantly agreed to send him abroad.

Completing MS in Computer Science Ram got a job as research executive in a software company. He wrote about this offer to his dad, His parents were expecting to spend their last few years of life with their son in Mumbai and the thought of further delay pained them. Nevertheless the news that Ram was coming to Mumbai for Diwal (a popular Indian Festival)i, a fortnight later, offered some solace to the elderly couple.

On this pretext Manoj wanted to get his son married during the visit so that Ram could take his wife with him to USA. Manoj’s friend Rakesh met him in the market and informed him that he was looking for a suitable boy for his daughter Shreya, who had completed her medical degree. Manoj shared the information about his son with Rakesh, who was keen to get his daughter married to Ram.

Upon his return from market Manoj informed his wife about the offer and said that he had invited Rakesh and his daughter to come home for Diwali, when they can meet Ram also. Ram arrived from USA and was told about the proposal to marry Shreya.

Nevertheless his mother was not happy because Ram would be leaving with Shreya to USA after marriage. Shreya and her father spent Diwali with the Manojs and Ram gave his consent to marry Shreya.

To complete various formalities that remained to be done, Ram was running around. He had to tie up some loose ends for his Job. He returned one evening yelling, “Mom I have made all the arrangements for the Job and it is just the Marriage that we should take care of.”

Reacting slowly his mother asked him when he was planning to leave for USA with Shreya. Ram winked at her and asked, “Mom do you feel you had enough and want me to leave soon!!”.With tears streaming down her face she started crying. Ram hurriedly apologized to her, “Mom I was just kidding, don’t I know how much you love me,”

Yet she was not consoled. He then made his parents sit comfortably and started saying. “Mom I am not going anywhere leaving you and Papa. Technology has improved so much that Location is no more a constraint for business. I have made arrangements to work from Mumbai and send the software abroad.”. His Mom leapt with Joy and hugged …

Jesus Christ Our Savior – Was He a Scientist?

Jesus Christ Our Savior – Was He a Scientist?

Many people across the globe continue to ask themselves about the nature of Jesus Christ, the son of God and what made Him popular across the world in the 33 years that He lived here on planet earth. Was He a political leader, a magician, a sociologist or a scientist? This article examines the nature of Jesus Christ in relation to science.

Up to today many are puzzled about the birth of Jesus Christ by the Virgin Mary who slept with no man. Although she had Joseph as her husband, the Bible says that she did not sleep with him but got pregnant by the power of the Holy Spirit, a situation which did not involve the normal biological phenomenon of fertilization. This type of birth, however, is also biological because biology talks about parthenogenesis, a type of reproduction that does not involve fertilization in certain organisms like aphids. Therefore the birth of Jesus was scientific and biological.

He changed water into wine- This was the first miracle that Jesus performed at the wedding of Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-9). This is the chemistry of fermentation but this time from water and not carbohydrates. Was Jesus therefore a chemist? Why change water to wine and it was served to the people at the wedding? This should not be taken wholesale because the dangers of alcohol are well known to everyone. Wine was the drink of the time and He did this out of His concern for the good of the people.

His first sermon on the mount in Matt 5, Jesus refers to His followers as the light and salt of the world. Jesus here is ecologically explaining to the world the importance of light as the source of energy for all living things. Primary producers, the plants, obtain their energy from the sun and the former pass on this energy to other living organisms at higher trophic levels such as herbivores and then to the carnivores. Jesus therefore, urges His followers to be the source of life to the whole world and to provide direction to the many who live in darkness.

The chemistry of salt as a preservative, taste giving, wound healing and its importance in the body’s coordinating system was well understood by Jesus Christ. Without the knowledge of Science Jesus would not have used this example in His teaching. He calls upon His followers to be the salt of the world-preserve, give taste, heal and coordinate the world’s activities accordingly in order to bring harmony among the people.

What about His many miracles of healing and deliverance? Can we call Him a doctor? Since He was concerned with the health of individuals, their need for feeding to prevent them from ulcers and malnutrition as well as their emotional concerns, Jesus can be regarded as a doctor. His love, care and none-discriminative approach are all characteristic of a good medical doctor. So Jesus was a real doctor.

It is therefore; appropriate to call Jesus Christ a scientist. …

Setting The Tone For A Positive Learning Environment

Setting The Tone For A Positive Learning Environment

Every teacher has a responsibility to provide a healthy learning environment for his or her students. Over the years, volumes of research have been conducted to help teachers determine what works best for the students. There is a wealth of methods and techniques that, through research, have been proven to improve the quality of the learning environment. Many different aspects of the learning environment should be considered.

A positive learning environment is one in which school staff, students, and parents build safe and peaceful environments where people feel accepted and respected and where learning is the main focus (Stratman, n.d.). Therefore, a positive school climate exists when all students feel comfortable, wanted, valued, accepted, and secure in an environment where they can interact with caring people they trust. A positive school climate affects everyone associated with the school, being the students, staff, parents, and the community. It is the belief system or culture that underlies the day-to-day operation of a school. “Improved school climate is a goal to pursue. Educators need to constantly work toward improving their school climate, culture, and conditions so that student learning is improved” (Noonan, 2004 p.64). How Teachers Can Set the Tone for a Positive Learning Environment

There are many things a teacher can do to make his or her classroom a safe and positive place for students to learn. First and foremost, a teacher needs to be enthusiastic about her or himself. They must come in with an energetic attitude. They must be positive because it radiates. How the teacher feels and appears it will affect the classroom. The teacher is the facilitator, the teacher sets an example, and the teacher is the role model. Attitude goes a long way.

When teachers come to work stressed-out, it can be damaging to the students. A study conducted by Yoon (2002) investigated whether or not teacher stress, negative affect, and self-efficacy would predict the quality of student-teacher relationships. Findings suggested, “negative teacher-student relationships were predicted by teacher stress. Significant correlations were found among negative affect, teacher stress and negative relationships”(p.486).

The teacher should also share with the students the importance of an education and the importance of being independent. So if they see a teacher enthused about learning and ideas are shared, then the students will feel the same as well. Teachers can also help create a positive environment by simply caring for the students and showing each of them that they are special. Furthermore, they should be taught to respect and care for each other.

Teachers should regularly conduct research to stay up-to-date on the best practices and methods to use in creating a positive learning environment. Freda Glatt, a retired teacher who firmly believes in the benefits of a positive learning environment has shared some tips on creating a positive learning environment through the Sandral Sensations website (2003):

Make sure each child knows that he is important to you as an individual. Give eye contact and a pleasant greeting to every child each morning. …

How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

Electrical engineering may seem like a boring profession, especially if the first person that comes to mind is the public utility repairman who fixed the neighborhood power grid. Contrary to popular belief, a degree in electrical engineering leads to career opportunities bigger than that. Behind some of the latest and greatest innovations is a workforce that is well-versed on the subject.

Cellular Telecommunications

A few decades ago, the first publicly available handheld phones were bulky and with bad reception. By the 90’s and with thanks to the electrical engineering developments towards GSM technologies, mobile phones soon did more than just make and receive calls. Today, it has become a race to the smallest, most multi-functional mobile phone. Headway in electrical engineering and the subsequent circulation of the science means more companies need creative individuals. And this is just to keep up with the competition. That’s not even taking into account the perks of such a world-changing occupation.

Computer Electronics

The boost in the mobile world is owed largely to the impressive breakthroughs in computer technology. These original steps forward are owed to the electrical engineering concepts behind them. Even now, electrical engineering knowhow is necessary in order to come up with devices that get continually more complex as its operation becomes simpler. Before the software developers came up with the applications that make our lives easier, someone made the increasingly sophisticated networks and computers that they are stored in. Whose midnight oil do you think was burned to make the hardware and software giants the successes that they are?

Space Exploration

Rocket science may have been ultimately responsible for putting a man on the moon. Yet it was the resolve and commitment of electrical engineering professionals that made it possible to see three-dimensional renditions of the planet Mars. It is their skills that are put to the test when equipment stop functioning or have new requirements. They continue to challenge the existing limitations by changing how we view them and the world in general. This makes them the best bet towards future journeys outside our solar system.

You may intend to follow in the innovative entrepreneurial milestones of and expert like Thomas Edison. You may idolize the large leaps and bounds in the science made by Nikola Tesla. Either way, electrical engineering has a place for you. All it asks is that you stay passionate, motivated and dedicated to persevere and make those milestones, leaps and bounds.…